Glances – System Monitoring

Since I have only one (Ubuntu) server at home currently running as a PVR (personal video recorder) for recording TV shows from a OTA (over-the-air) antenna and Plex for viewing my content via the Roku (more on all that on a later post), I like to see what my server is doing as far as performance at a glance from time to time. Sure, top or htop will do the job but I want more. I get more from using Glances. You can get more information on the utility here.

I setup my server to run the web UI and launch at start. I created this script to easily deploy to any machine running Ubuntu. I included in the script to also create a systemd service so that it would start after each reboot. Here’s the script:

#!/bin/bash
# This script will install the Glances monitoring tool and create
# a startup service for the Glances web server. See 'glances --help'
# for details

# Update and install
sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y glances
sleep 3

# Change the startup switch from false to true
sudo sed -i 's/false/true/g' /etc/default/glances
sleep 3

# Create the systemd service
sudo touch /lib/systemd/system/glances.service
sudo bash -c 'cat <<EOF > /lib/systemd/system/glances.service
[Unit]
Description = Glances web server
After = network.target

[Service]
ExecStart = /usr/bin/glances -w

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF'
sleep 2

# Reload systemd
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sleep 2
sudo systemctl enable glances.service
sleep 2
sudo systemctl restart glances.service
sleep 2
sudo systemctl status glances.service
sleep 2
hostip=`hostname -I`
echo
echo "Monitoring of this server will be viewable at http://$hostip:61208"
echo

I have a third monitor above my other monitors that has a Raspberry Pi 3 connected where I have my Glances page running.

IMG_20170502_201709

Here is a closer look at the web UI.

Screenshot at 2017-05-02 20:21:38
It’s been very convenient to view during recordings so that 1.) I know when there is a recording and conversion of the video file going on by seeing a spike in CPU and memory and 2.) to see how well my machine performs during those recordings and conversions.

Shell Scripting: Updates – Part 2

Where I work we don’t have anything like Red Hat Satellite to deploy updates to our thirteen Red Hat servers. So that I don’t have to touch each server manually to apply updates in a relatively controlled fashion, I wrote some shell scripts that will connect to each server, apply updates and then ask if you want to reboot. Again, I don’t normally reboot unless there is a kernel update.

This is the script I use to update servers in our Dev/Test and non-web Production servers:

#!/bin/bash
clear
# SSH to the server and run local yum update
echo "**** Connecting to server1 to update ****"
echo
ssh -t user@server1 sudo yum update -y 2>&1 | tee -a $HOME/Documents/yumlogs/Dev_Test/updates_server1_`date +%Y%m%d`.log
echo
echo "**** Finished updating server1 ****"
echo
read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo
# SSH to the server and run local yum update
echo "**** Connecting to server2 to update ****"
echo
ssh -t user@server2 sudo yum update -y 2>&1 | tee -a $HOME/Documents/yumlogs/Dev_Test/updates_server2_`date +%Y%m%d`.log
echo
echo "**** Finished updating server2 ****"
echo
read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo
# **************** REBOOTS SECTION *******************
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot server1? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot server1 ***"
sleep 3
# SSH to the server and run shutdown
ssh -t user@server1 sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minute
sleep 30
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- server1 will not reboot ---"
sleep 2
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
sleep 2
echo
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot server2? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot server2 ***"
sleep 2
# SSH to the server and run shutdown
ssh -t user@server2 sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minute
sleep 30
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- server2 will not reboot ---"
sleep 2
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
sleep 2
echo

 

Then I use this script to run on my web servers that are in load balancers making sure to complete updates in a controlled fashion.

#!/bin/bash
# **************** THIS SCRIPT IS FOR UPDATING REMOTE SERVERS ON LOAD BALANCERS *******************
clear
echo
echo
echo -e " ---->> \033[33;7mREMEMBER TO COMPLETE A SNAPSHOT OF THE SERVERS BEFORE PROCEEDING\033[0m <<----"
echo
sleep 5
read -p "Press [ENTER] to continue "
echo
echo "**** Please remove WEB1 from load balance rotation ****"
echo
sleep 5
read -p "Once the WEB1 has been removed from rotation press [Enter] to continue to complete updates "
clear
echo
# **************** UPDATES SECTION FOR WEB1 *******************
# SSH to the server and run local yum update
echo "**** Connection to WEB1 to update ****"
echo
ssh -t username@WEB1 sudo yum update -y 2>&1 | tee -a $HOME/updates_web1_`date +%Y%m%d`.log
echo
echo "**** Finished updating WEB1 ****"
clear
echo
# **************** REBOOTS SECTION FOR WEB1 *******************
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot WEB1? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
 echo
 echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot WEB1 ***"
 sleep 3
 echo
 # SSH to the server and run shutdown
 ssh -t username@WEB1 sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minute
 sleep 30
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
 echo
 echo "--- WEB1 will not reboot ---"
 sleep 2
else
 echo
 echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
echo
echo "**** Please test WEB1 before moving on to the next phase ****"
sleep 5
echo
read -p "Once WEB1 is up after a reboot (if rebooted) and has been tested press [Enter] to continue to WEB2"
echo
# **************** DONE WITH REBOOTS SECTION FOR WEB1 *******************
clear
echo "**** Please add WEB1 back into rotation and remove WEB2 from load balance rotation ****"
echo
sleep 5
read -p "Once WEB2 has been removed from rotation press [Enter] to continue to complete updates "
clear
echo
# **************** UPDATES SECTION FOR WEB2 *******************
# SSH to the server and run local yum update
echo "**** Connection to WEB2 to update ****"
echo
ssh -t username@WEB2 sudo yum update -y 2>&1 | tee -a $HOME/updates_104_`date +%Y%m%d`.log
echo
echo "**** Finished updating WEB2 ****"
clear
echo
# **************** REBOOTS SECTION FOR WEB2 *******************
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot WEB2? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
 echo
 echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot WEB2 ***"
 sleep 3
 echo
 # SSH to the server and run shutdown
 ssh -t username@WEB2 sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minute
 sleep 30
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
 echo
 echo "--- WEB2 will not reboot ---"
 sleep 2
else
 echo
 echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
echo
echo "**** Please test the WEB2 before moving on to the next phase ****"
sleep 5
echo
read -p "Once WEB2 is up after a reboot (if rebooted) and has been tested, add WEB2 back into rotation and press [Enter] to continue "
echo
# **************** DONE WITH REBOOTS SECTION FOR WEB2 *******************
clear

Shell Scripting: Updates – Part 1

One thing I have learned with shell scripting is that it’s a wonderful tool to use for automation. What I mean by that is that it’s perfect for promoting less typing. My touch typing has improved over the years so much that I can type pretty fast, however, I make errors and the less I type the better. With that being said, here are the scripts I run on my machines each day when I first login to complete updates:

Fedora/Korora


#!/bin/bash
# Script to check for updates on Fedora, update, and then reboot if
# the kernel was updated
rm -f $HOME/updates.txt
echo
clear
echo " ========== "
echo
echo " Checking for updates... "
echo
sudo dnf check-update
echo
sleep 2
echo " Do you want to update the machine? (yes/no) "
read UPREPLY
if [ "$UPREPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** Updating ***"
sleep 2
echo
sudo dnf update -y | tee -a $HOME/updates.txt
sleep 3
elif [ "$UPREPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- Will not update ---"
sleep 2
exit 0
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
echo
echo "*** Updates have been applied ***"
echo
echo "*** Here is a list of the updates ***"
sleep 3
clear
echo " ========== "
echo
cat $HOME/updates.txt | more
echo
sleep 5
echo " ========== "
grep "kernel" $HOME/updates.txt
echo
sleep 5
read -p " Press [Enter] to continue "
rm -f $HOME/updates.txt
clear
# **************** REBOOTS SECTION *******************
echo
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot the machine? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot ***"
sleep 3
sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minutes
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- machine will not reboot ---"
sleep 3
exit 0
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
sleep 3

With the above script, basically, it checks for updates, logs it to a text file, reads the text file, points out the keyword “kernel” and then ask if you want to reboot . If it finds that there is a kernel update then my normal practice is to reboot. If there is no kernel update I don’t reboot.

Ubuntu

#!/bin/bash
# Script to check for updates on Fedora, update, and then reboot if
# the kernel was updated
rm -f $HOME/updates.txt
echo
clear
echo " ========== "
echo
echo " Checking for updates... "
echo
sudo apt update && sudo apt list --upgradable
echo
echo " ========== "
sleep 3
echo
echo " Do you want to update the machine? (yes/no) "
read UPREPLY
if [ "$UPREPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** Updating ***"
sleep 2
echo
sudo apt upgrade -y | tee -a $HOME/updates.txt
sleep 3
elif [ "$UPREPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- Will not update ---"
sleep 2
exit 0
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
echo
echo "*** Updates have been applied ***"
echo
echo "*** Here is a list of the updates ***"
sleep 3
clear
echo " ========== "
echo
cat $HOME/updates.txt | more
echo
sleep 5
echo " ========== "
grep "linux-headers" $HOME/updates.txt
echo
sleep 5
read -p " Press [Enter] to continue "
rm -f $HOME/updates.txt
sudo apt autoremove
clear
# **************** REBOOTS SECTION *******************
echo
echo "^^^ Do you want to reboot the machine? (yes/no) ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
echo
echo "*** WARNING: You have selected to reboot ***"
sleep 3
sudo shutdown -r +1 Rebooting in 1 minutes
elif [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]; then
echo
echo "--- machine will not reboot ---"
sleep 3
exit 0
else
echo
echo "invalid answer, type yes or no";
fi
sleep 3

Another option with this is to not make the script interactive and just add to a crontab to schedule updates a couple times a week and reboot. Of course, you would have to remember when that reboot is supposed to take place and make sure you have no unsaved work kept on your machine before that scheduled reboot.

Part 2 of this series I will post some scripts I use to remotely update my servers at work.

Shell Scripting: My Story, My Post-Install – Part 3

Where I work we have very few Red Hat servers, so there hasn’t been a need, so far, to deploy a Red Hat Satellite server to assist with deploying servers. What I have done, since we use VMware ESXi for our virtual environment, is create a virtual machine template with some basic configuration. Once I deploy the virtual server I use some custom shell scripts to finish the configuration. What I have for holding the post-install scripts for the new servers is a NAS with a share. Because I am often changing the post-install scripts with new security changes and such, I have a basic updatesscripts.sh on the template that looks like this:

#!/bin/bash
# Mounts NAS share to local share directory on the server template
mount -t cifs //ipaddress/scripts_share /share -o username=username
sleep 2
# Copies mount to local scripts
yes | cp -R /share/* /scripts
sleep 4
umount /share

Then, when I am ready to start the server setup, I run this script that gives menu options:

#!/bin/bash
clear

selection=
until [ "$selection" = "0" ]; do
	echo ""
	echo "-------------------------"
	echo "* New Server Setup MENU *"
	echo "-------------------------"
	echo ""
	echo "1 - Change network IP"
	echo "2 - Change hostname"
	echo "3 - Register Red Hat server with Red Hat subscription"
	echo "4 - Update the server"
	echo "5 - Setup Red Hat 7 server"
	echo "6 - Install TrendMicro for domain1.local"
	echo "7 - Install TrendMicro for domain2.local"
	echo "8 - Create new user"
	echo "9 - Copy standardized bashrc"
	echo ""
	echo "0 - exit program"
	echo ""
	echo -n "Enter selection: "
	read selection
	echo ""
case $selection in
	1 ) sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/networkchg_RH7_CentOS7.sh ;;
	2 ) sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/hostnamechg_RH7_CentOS7.sh ;;
	3 ) sh /scripts/RHEL_subscription.sh ;;
	4 ) sh /scripts/yumupdate.sh ;;
	5 ) sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/Setup_RH7.sh ;;
	6 ) sh /scripts/TM_Orlando.sh ;;
	7 ) sh /scripts/TM_Peak10.sh ;;
	8 ) sh /scripts/createuser_prompt-RH.sh ;;
	9 ) sh /scripts/cpbashrc.sh ;;
	0 ) exit ;;
	* ) echo "Please enter 1 - 9 or 0"
esac
done

Here is what each of those scripts from the menu executes:

Menu 1

#!/bin/bash
clear
echo
echo "*** The current IP address is: ***"
echo "__________________________________"
ip addr
echo "__________________________________"
echo
echo "^^^ Would you like to change the network IP address? yes or no: ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
 nmtui
echo "*** Restarting the network service ***"
echo
systemctl restart network
echo
else [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]
 echo
 echo "*** No change ***"
 echo
fi
echo "*** This is the current IP address ***"
echo "______________________________________"
ip addr
echo "______________________________________"
echo

Menu 2

#!/bin/bash
# Change hostname
clear
echo
echo "*** Confirming the static hostname is set... ***"
echo
hostnamectl status
echo
echo "^^^ The current hostname is -> `hostname` <-. Would you like to change the machine hostname? yes or no: ^^^"
read HOSTCHANGE
if [ "$HOSTCHANGE" == "yes" ]; then
 echo
 echo "**** Changing the hostname. What would you like to change it to? ****"
 read HOSTNAME
 hostnamectl set-hostname $HOSTNAME
 echo
 hostnamectl status
 sleep 3
else [ "$HOSTCHANGE" == "no" ]
 echo
 echo "*** No change ***"
 echo
fi
clear

Menu 3

#!/bin/bash
clear
subscription-manager register --username username --auto-attach
echo
subscription-manager attach --pool=longidstring
echo
echo "Currently assigned and consumed"
echo "_______________________________"
echo
subscription-manager list --consumed
echo "_______________________________"
clear

Menu 4

#!/bin/bash
clear
yum install -y wget vim rsync
yum -y update
echo
echo "^^^ Updates have been applied. Would you like to reboot? yes or no: ^^^"
read RESPONSE
if [ "$RESPONSE" == "yes" ]; then
 echo
 echo "**** Rebooting ****"
 sleep 3
 reboot
else [ "$RESPONSE" == "no" ]
 echo
fi
clear

Menu 5

This next script runs a hardening process for PCI compliance. Basically, it’s a script that launches many scripts that hardens the server based on CIS Red Hat 7 Benchmark and OpenSCAP hardening along with some standing installs and configurations.

#!/bin/bash
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ OS Hardening @@@"
sleep 4
echo
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 1-1 - Sticky bit, disbable mounting ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_1-1_fs.sh
echo
##read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 2-1 - Remove special services ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_2-2_removespecialservices.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 2-3 - Remove services ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_2-3_removeservices.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo
echo "*** CIS 3-1 - Modify Network Parameters ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_3-1_modifynetparam.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 3-3 - Disable IPv6 ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_3-3_modifyipv6.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 3-4 - Install TCP Wrappers ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_3-4_tcpwrappers.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 3-5 - Uncommon Network Protocols ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_3-5_uncommonnetwork.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 3-6 - Enable IPtables & add rules ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_3-6_confirmfirewall.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 4-1 - Configure Auditing ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_4-1_configsysacct.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 4-2 - Configure logs ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_4-2_configlogfiles.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 5-2 - Configure SSH ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_5-2_configssh.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
#echo "----------------------------------------------------"
#echo "CIS 5-3 - Set lockout for failed password"
#echo
#sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_5-3_logout.sh
#echo
##read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 5-4 - Set password expiration, lock inactive user accounts ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_5-4_passwordexp.sh
echo
#read -p "Press [Enter] to continue"
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "*** CIS 6-2 - Configure home directory, additional auditing ***"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/CIS_6-2_checkuserhome.sh
echo
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ Additional hardening cont'd @@@"
echo
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/PCI_scripts_RH7_CentOS7/RHEL7_PCI_harden.sh
echo
#echo "---->> Complete <<----"
echo -e "---->> \033[33;7mHardending Completed\033[0m <<----"
echo
sleep 4
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ Setting up SNMPv3 @@@"
sh /scripts/RH7_CentOS7/snmp_abc_RH7_CentOS7.sh
sleep 4
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ Installing Splunk @@@"
sh /scripts/splunk_inst.sh
sleep 4
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ Installing VMware Tools @@@"
sh /scripts/vmwaretools.sh
sleep 4
clear
echo "----------------------------------------------------"
echo "@@@ Configure Max Password Age for root @@@"
sh /scripts/rootmaxpass.sh
sleep 4
clear
echo -e "---->> \033[33;7mCompleted Setup\033[0m <<----"
sleep 4
clear

Menu 6 & 7

Basically, those are scripts for install TrendMicro

Menu 8

#!/bin/bash
clear
echo -n "Enter a username: "
read name
useradd -m $name
passwd $name
chage -d 0 $name
echo
echo "^^^ Would you like to add the new user to the sudoers? yes or no: ^^^"
read REPLY
if [ "$REPLY" == "yes" ]; then
 echo
 echo "** Adding user to the end of the file **"
 echo
 echo "$name ALL=(ALL) ALL" >> /etc/sudoers
 echo
 echo "** Here is the output confirmation **"
 sleep 5
 cat /etc/sudoers
 sleep 3
else [ "$REPLY" == "no" ]
 echo
 echo "** Not adding user **"
 echo
fi
sleep 3
clear

Menu 9

I have a custom bashrc. If you are interested in seeing it, just post in the comments and I will update this post with the custom file.

#!/bin/bash
clear
echo
echo "** Configure custom bashrc **"
echo
echo "** Current bashrc **"
sleep 3
clear
cat $HOME/.bashrc
sleep 5
echo
echo "** Backing up current bashrc **"
sleep 3
cp $HOME/.bashrc $HOME/.bashrc.bk
echo
echo "** Copying custom bashrc **"
cp -f /scripts/bashrc $HOME/.bashrc
echo
echo "** New bashrc **"
sleep 3
clear
cat $HOME/.bashrc
sleep 5
clear

Shell Scripting: My Story, My Post-Install – Part 2

One thing I figure I should post is my app script referenced in the last post. This is what I use to install my favorite applications that is referenced in my post-install script for Fedora based distros.

#!/bin/bash
selection=
until [ "$selection" = "0" ]; do
 echo ""
 echo "PROGRAM INSTALLATION MENU"
 echo "1 - Install Geany"
 echo "2 - Install Chrome"
 echo "3 - Install Guake"
 echo "4 - Install htop"
 echo "5 - Install inxi"
 echo "6 - Install Nano"
 echo "7 - Install ncdu"
 echo "8 - Install nmap"
 echo "9 - Install Shutter"
 echo "10 - Install terminology"
 echo "11 - Install tlp"
 echo "12 - Install vim"
 echo ""
 echo "0 - exit program"
 echo ""
 echo -n "Enter selection: "
 read selection
 echo ""
 case $selection in
 1 ) sudo dnf install -y geany ;;
 2 ) sudo dnf install -y google-chrome ;;
 3 ) sudo dnf install -y guake ;;
 4 ) sudo dnf install -y htop ;;
 5 ) sudo dnf install -y inxi ;;
 6 ) sudo dnf install -y nano ;;
 7 ) sudo dnf install -y ncdu ;;
 8 ) sudo dnf install -y nmap ;;
 9 ) sudo dnf install -y shutter ;;
 10 ) sudo dnf install -y terminology ;;
 11 ) sudo dnf install -y tlp ;;
 12 ) sudo dnf install -y vim ;;
 0 ) exit ;;
 * ) echo "Please enter 1 - 12 or 0"
 esac
done

Shell Scripting: My Story, My Post-Install – Part 1

If you’ve been following my blog for a while you will get a sense that I am a Linux enthusiast. Recent historical post will show that I have achieved a few Linux certifications. In my very short career as a Linux Administrator, I have found that shell scripting is extremely useful, especially for those repetitive task. After achieving my Linux certifications I set out to try to learn bash shell scripting using some online courses, online tutorials and even buying a couple of books. I’ve been using it for a while but I am nowhere near to where I want to be as far as being an expert.

Saying all that I get to this point: I plan on posting some sample shell scripts here I have created that have helped me in my professional and personal tech life. I don’t at all claim to be an expert so what you see is what you get. Take and use it as you like, if you want.

In this post I will share some scripts and processes I have used on several occasions as my post install scripts for when I install Linux (Debian and Red Hat based) on my personal and work machines, physical and virtual. What I have found really useful for storing my scripts is git using the free service Bitbucket. Here is my process for my personal machines (I use Ubuntu Mate on my desktop and Korora on my laptop):

  1. Install the operating system
  2. Complete a git clone (git clone https://username@bitbucket.org/username/scriptrepo.git) from command line, assuming git is already installed (Fedora based distros do have it installed by default), to pull down all my shell scripts and then launch my custom shell script.

Below is the script that I use for my Fedora based install:


#!/bin/bash
# script to complete a post-install auto setup

# Complete system and OS updates
echo
echo "^^^ Would you like to complete OS updates? yes or no: ^^^"
read UPDATESRESPONSE
if [ "$UPDATESRESPONSE" == "yes" ]; then
	echo
	echo "**** Completing OS updates ****"
	echo
	sleep 3
	sudo dnf update -y
else [ "$UPDATESRESPONSE" == "no" ]
	echo
        echo "---- Proceeding with setup ----"
fi
sleep 3
echo
# Creates a 'bin' directory in your home directory
echo "Creating 'bin' directory in home"
mkdir $HOME/bin
echo
echo "@@@@ Changing to configs directory @@@@"
cd $HOME/scripts_repo/configs
echo
sleep 3
# Launches a custom script to install preferred applications
echo "==== Will now install apps ===="
echo
sh $HOME/scripts_repo/configs/fedora_apps_home.sh
echo
sleep 3
# Copies a custom '.bashrc' file
echo "==== Will now configure bash. Making a backup of .bashrc ===="
cp $HOME/.bashrc $HOME/.bashrc.bk
echo
echo "---- Replacing .bashrc with configured version ----"
cp -f $HOME/scripts_repo/configs/bashrc_Fed $HOME/.bashrc
echo
echo "--- Done ---"
echo
sleep 3
# Copies a custom '.vimrc' for VIM
echo "==== Now proceeding with configuring VIM. Making a backup ===="
cp $HOME/.vimrc $HOME/.vimrc.bk
echo
echo "---- Replacing .vimrc with configured version ----"
echo
cp -f $HOME/scripts_repo/configs/vimrc $HOME/.vimrc
echo "---- Done with vimrc ----"
echo
sleep 3
# Adding Terminology to autostart. Works best with Gnome & Mate desktop environment
echo "==== Copying Terminology startup config ===="
cp -f $HOME/scripts_repo/configs/terminology.desktop $HOME/.config/autostart/terminology.desktop
echo
echo "---- Done with startup config ----"
echo
sleep 3
# Copies custom 'hosts' file for LAN resolution
echo "==== Copying home LAN hosts file ===="
echo
echo "^^^ Copy your home LAN hosts file? yes or no: ^^^"
read HOSTSRESPONSE
if [ "$HOSTSRESPONSE" == "yes" ]; then
	echo
	sudo cp -f /etc/hosts /etc/hosts.bk && cat $HOME/scripts_repo/configs/home_hosts | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
else [ "$HOSTSRESPONSE" == "no" ]
	echo
	echo "Not changing hosts file"
	echo
fi
echo
echo "---- Done with hosts file ----"
echo
sleep 3
# Change the system's hostname
echo "^^^ The current hostname is -> `hostname` <-. Would you like to change the machine hostname? yes or no: ^^^"
read HOSTCHANGE
if [ "$HOSTCHANGE" == "yes" ]; then
	echo
	echo "**** Changing the hostname. What would you like to change it to? ****"
	read HOSTNAME
	sudo hostnamectl set-hostname $HOSTNAME
	echo
	hostnamectl status
	sleep 7
	echo
        echo "**** Will now update /etc/hosts ****"
else [ "$HOSTCHANGE" == "no" ]
        echo
        echo "---- Proceeding with setup ----"
fi
echo
HOSTCALL=`hostname`
sudo sed -i "s/localhost.localdomain/$HOSTCALL/g" /etc/hosts
echo
echo "**** Here is the updated /etc/hosts file ****"
echo
sudo cat /etc/hosts | awk '/^127.0.0.1/{print $1,$2,$3}'
echo
sleep 3
# A choice to reboot or not
echo "^^^ Would you like to reboot? yes or no: ^^^"
read REBOOTRESPONSE
if [ "$REBOOTRESPONSE" == "yes" ]; then
        echo
        echo "**** Rebooting ****"
        sleep 3
        sudo shutdown -r now
else [ "$REBOOTRESPONSE" == "no" ]
	echo
        read -p "**** Done with configuration of system. Hit [Enter] to continue ****"
fi
exit

Basically, what the script does is run OS updates, creates a ‘bin’ directory to store my scripts that I run all the time, then installs my favorite apps, copies over my custom ‘.bashrc’ file, then my custom ‘.vimrc’ file, some startup files, copies a custom /etc/hosts file that has all the host on my LAN, then updates my machines hostname then updates the /etc/hosts file with my machines new hostname, then ask me if I want to reboot or not.

I also have an Ubuntu script that does basically the same thing.

Next post, I will post a script template I use for post-installs of CentOS/Red Hat servers that I use at work.